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These WINKS statistics tutorials explain the use and interpretation of standard statistical analysis techniques for Medical, Pharmaceutical, Clinical Trials, Marketing or Scientific Research. The examples include how-to instructions for WINKS SDA Version 6.0 Software. Download evaluation copy of WINKS.

WINKS Labels and Formats Tutorial

This tutorial requires WINKS 7 or later. It illustrates how to define variable labels and format labels.

VARIABLE LABEL -- A "Variable Label" is an alternate (and usually more explanatory) description of a WINKS variable. For example, a label for the variable AGE might be "AGE in 1990," the variable for ID could be "Identification Number," and so on. A Label makes the output more readable.

VARIABLE FORMAT - A "Variable Format" is a series of labels that are used in place of actual data values. For example, suppose you have a variable named ANSWER with values 0 and 1. You could define a variable format where 0='"No" and 1="Yes." Then, when output is generated, the labels No and Yes are used rather than the cryptic 0 and 1.

To define Variable Labels or Variable Formats, open a data file and click on the attributes tab at the bottom on the main WINKS Screen. For example:

Step 1: Open QUESTIONS.SDA. Click on the Attributes tab. The following screen is displayed:

WINKS Formats Dialog Box

Note the last 2 columns -- Label and Formats.

Step 2: To define a label for ID, click on the Label cell on the same row as ID, and enter Identification. For AGE enter AGE in 2011. You could also enter labels for the GENDER and Q1 through Q20 variables if desired. The Q# variables are the answers to 20 Yes-No questions on a survey.

Step 3: To define a format for Q1, click on the Formats column, Q1 row in the Attributes grid. The following screen appears:

WINKS Format dialog box

In the text box next to "IF Q1 = " enter the number 1. Next to the label "then assign label =" enter No. Click the button "Add category label to list," and the format description

1 = No

appears in the large text box. Similarly, enter the number 2 next to "IF Q1 =" and Yes next to "then assign label =" and click the button "Add category label to list," and the format

2 = Yes

appears in the large text box. Click the Continue button to assign this format to the Q1 variable.

Step 4: Assign the same format to a number of variables. Click on the format for Q1, and the dialog box appears, with the defined format

1 = No

2 = Yes

in the large text box. To assign this same format to the other questions, click on the button "Apply current format to a list of variables." The dialog box changes to the following:

Select variables for format

Step 5: Select variables from the left text box list. In this case select Q2 through Q20. You can use the Ctrl or Shift to select multiple variables at a time. For example, click on Q2, hold down Shift, then click on Q20 to select Q2 through Q20.

Step 6: Click on the "APPLY TO SELECTED" button. You are notified that the format has been applied to the select variables.

Step 7: Click Continue. The attributes screen appears. Verify that the format has been copied to the selected variable rows.

Step 8: Click the Data tab at the bottom of the screen. Note that the format does NOT change any values in the data sheet. However, when you perform an analysis (Such as a frequency) the format names will appear. For example, select the menu option

Analyze/ Crosstabs, Frequencies, Chi-Square/ Frequencies

and specify the variables Q1 through Q20. The following (abbreviated) output is displayed:

                             Frequency Table for Q1

                                              Cumulative   Cumulative
         Q1             Frequency   Percent   Frequency    Percent
             NO                40      80.0          40       80.0
             YES               10      20.0          50      100.0

                             Frequency Table for Q2

                                              Cumulative   Cumulative
         Q2             Frequency   Percent   Frequency    Percent
             NO                48      96.0          48       96.0
             YES                2       4.0          50      100.0

                             Frequency Table for Q3

                                              Cumulative   Cumulative
         Q3             Frequency   Percent   Frequency    Percent
             NO                45      90.0          45       90.0
             YES                5      10.0          50      100.0

Notice that the format for the answers for the "Q" variables are displayed as Yes and No rather than 1 and 2.

For more information... we recommend:

  • WINKS -- a simple to use and affordable statistical software program that will help you analyze, interpret and write-up your results. Download a free trial copy.
  • Additional statistics tutorials.
  • Against All Odds VIDEOS - Now in VHS or DVD formats Teaching Videos from Annenberg/PBS Click here for info
  • BeSmartNotes Reference sheets for SAS, SAS ODS, SPSS and WINKS  Click here for info
  • Statistical Analysis Quick Reference Guidebook: With SPSS Examples is a practical "cut to the chase" handbook that quickly explains the when, where, and how of statistical data analysis as it is used for real-world decision-making in a wide variety of disciplines. It contains examples using SPSS Statistics software. In this one-stop reference, the authors  provide succinct guidelines for performing an analysis, avoiding pitfalls, interpreting results, and reporting outcomes. Paperback.Sage Publishers ISBN: 1412925606 Order book from Amazon

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